Listed here are Carbon Landscape relevant publications. Please contact Susan if you wish to know more about her isotope hydrology or isotope ecology publications.

Data publications

Long, H., Vihermaa, L., Waldron, S., Hoey,  T., Quemin, S. and Newton, J. (2015). CO2 efflux and hydraulic data for two Scottish and four Amazonian streams 2011-13. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/02d5cea7-10aa-4591-938a-a41e1c5bc207.

Armstrong, A., Richardson, H., Waldron, S., Ostle, N.J. and Whitaker, J. (2015). Field measurements of peatland carbon cycling at a wind farm hosting peatland in Scotland, UK. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/99416ba1-b670-4a82-8225-9644293fb4de

Vihermaa, L. and Waldron, S (2015). Water chemistry, hydrology and fluvial carbon data for two Amazonian small streams. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/507a5e1f-e056-454c-8ff6-d185f3da8556

Richardson, H., Waldron, S., Whitaker, J., and Ostle, N. (2015). Measures of peatland carbon cycling from peat mesocosm incubation experiments. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/e15fbbab-1cdd-4509-81a3-aa050e927dd0

Vihermaa, L., Waldron, S., Newton J., Donets V. (2016). Carbon and nutrient data for streams in the Peruvian Amazona. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/ee1b9eb7-6fbd-4dd5-8f8f-e07d32c057e4

Vihermaa, L., Waldron, S., Newton J. (2016). Carbon and nutrient data for rainfall fractions in the Peruvian Amazona. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. 10.5285/59bdb8f6-fb1f-418f-a53c-394f6c68a334

Zheng, Y., Naylor, L.A, Waldron, S., Oliver, D.M. (2018). Survey data of scientists on knowledge exchange in critical zone and geoscience. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.

Zheng, Y., Naylor, L.A., Waldron, S., Oliver, D.M. (2018). Literature review of knowledge management across the environment-policy interface in China. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.

Zheng, Y., Naylor, L., Waldron, S., Oliver, D. (2019). Stakeholder surveys to local farmers and officials in Chinese villages to understand knowledge management dynamics. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.

Yue, F-J., Waldron, S., Oliver, D., Ding, H. (2020). Hydrochemistry and nitrate sensor data from three karst sites in SW China, 2016-2017. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. (Dataset).


Anthropogenic influence on natural systems

Buckerfield S., Quilliam R.S., Bussiere L., Waldron S., Naylor L.A., Li S-L. and Oliver D.M. (2020) Chronic urban hotspots and agricultural drainage driver microbial pollution of karst water resources in rural developing regions.  Science of the Total Environment. 744, 140898,

Zhang Z., Chen X., Cheng Q., Li S-L., Yue F-J., Peng T., Waldron S., Oliver D.M., and Soulsby C. (2020) Coupled hydrological and biogeochemical modelling of nitrogen transport in the karst critical zone. Science of the Total Environment. 732, 138902,

Zhou Z., Li Z., Waldron S., and Tanaka A. (2019) InSAR time series analysis of L-band data for understanding tropical peatland degradation and restoration. Remote Sensing, 11, 2592,  https://doi:10.3390/rs11212592

Buckerfield S., Quilliam R.S., Waldron S., Naylor L.A., Li S-L. and Oliver D.M. (2019) Rainfall-driven E. coli transfer to the stream-conduit network observed through increasing spatial scales in mixed land-use paddy farming karst terrain. Water Research, 5, 10038,

Yue F-J., Waldron S., Li, S-L., Wang Z-J., Zeng J., Xu S., Zhang Z-C. and Oliver D.M. (2019) Land use interacts with changes in catchment hydrology to generate chronic nitrate pollution in karst waters and strong seasonality in excess nitrate export. Science of the Total Environment. 696, 134092,

Blair R.M.,  Waldron S. and Gauchotte-Lindsay Cl (2019) Average daily flow of microplastics through a tertiary wastewater treatement system over a 10-month period.  Water Research, 163, 114909,

Waldron S., Vihermaa L., Evers S., Garnett M.H., Newton J. and Henderson A.C.G. (2019) C mobilisation in disturbed tropical peat swamps: old DOC can fuel the fluvial efflux of old CO2, but site recovery can occur. Scientific Reports, 9, 11429,10.1038/s41598-019-46534-9

Heal K.,  Phin A., Waldron S., Flowers H., Bruneau P., Coupar A., and Cundill A. (2019) Wind farm development on peatlands increases fluvial macronutrient loading. Ambio. 1-18

Grau-Andrés R.,  Davies G.M., Gray A., Scott E.M. and Waldron S. (2019) Increased fire severity alters initial vegetation regeneration across Calluna-dominated ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management 231, 1004-1011, 1261-1269,

Blair R.M.,  Waldron S., Phoenix V.R. and Gauchotte-Lindsay Cl (2019) Microscopy and elemental analysis characterisation of microplastics in sediment of a freshwater urban river in Scotland  Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 12,12491–12504

Zheng Y.,  Waldron S. and Flowers H. (2018) Fluvial DOC composition varies spatially and seasonally in a small catchment draining a wind farm and felled forestry. Science of the Total Environment. 626, 785-794,

Grau-Andrés R.,  Davies G.M., Gray A., Scott E.M. and Waldron S.  (2018) Fire severity is more sensitive to low fuel moisture content on Calluna heathlands than on peat bogs. Science of the Total Environment. 616-617, 1261-1269,

Grau-Andrés R.,  Davies G.M., Gray A., Waldron S. and Scott E.M.  (2017) Leaving moss and litter layers undisturbed reduces the short-term environmental consequences of heathland managed burns. Journal of Environmental Management. 204, 102-110,

Widjedasa L.S.,  Jauhiainen J., Könönen M., et al (2017) Denial of long-term issues with agriculture on tropical peatlands will have devastating consequences. Global Change Biology, 23, 977–982, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13516 

Smith, B.A.V. (2016) Assessment of carbon and nutrient export from a peatland windfarm construction site. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow 2016.

Armstrong A., Burton R.R., Lee S.E., Mobbs S., Ostle N.J.Smith V., Waldron S., and Whitaker  J. (2016)  Ground-level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation. Environmental Research Letters 11, 11 044024

Györea D., Stuart F.M.,  Gilfillan S.M.V.  & Waldron S. (2015) Tracing injected CO2 in the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery field (MS, USA) using He, Ne and Ar isotopes.  International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Controls 42, 554–561 doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.09.009

Lang’at, J.K.S, Kairo, J.G., Mencuccini M.,  Bouillon S., Skov, M.W.,  Waldron S., Huxham M. (2014) Rapid losses of surface elevation following tree girdling and cutting in tropical mangrove PLoS ONE 9(9): e107868. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107868

Armstrong A.,  Waldron S., Whitaker  J., and Ostle N.J. (2013) Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12437

Murray, H. (2012) Assessing the impact of wind-farm related disturbance on streamwater carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen dynamics: A case study of the Whitelee catchments. University of Glasgow 2012.

Smith, J.U., Graves, P., Nayak D,R., Smith, P., Perks, M., Gardiner, B., Miller., D. Nolan, A., Morrice, J.,  Xanakis, G., Waldron, S., Drew, S., 2011. Carbon implications of windfarms located on peatlands – update of the Scottish Government carbon calculator tool 2CR/2010.05

Waldron S., Flowers H., Arlaud C., Bryant C., and McFarlane S. (2009) The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance. Biogeosciences, 6, 363-374

Grey J., Waldron S. and Hutchinson R. (2004) The utility of carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses to trace contributions from fish farms to the receiving communities of freshwater lakes: a pilot study inEsthwaite Water,UK. Hydrobiologia 524, 1: 253-262

Waldron S., Tatner P., Jack I. and Arnott C. (2001) The impact of sewage discharge into a marine embayment: a stable isotope reconniassance. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 52, 111-115

Waldron S., Watson-Craik, I.A., Hall A.J. and Fallick A.E. (1998) The carbon and hydrogen stable isotope composition of bacteriogenic methane: a laboratory study using a landfill inoculum. Geomicrobiology, 15, 157-169.


Managing natural resources, and knowledge exchange

Oliver D.M., Zheng Y., Naylor L.A., Murtagh M., Waldron S. and Peng T. (2020) How does smallholder farming practise and environmental awareness vary across villages in the karst terrain of SW-China?  Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. 288,106175

Zheng Y., Naylor L.A., Waldron S. and Oliver D.M. (2019) Knowledge management across the environment-policy interface in China: What knowledge is exchanged, why, and how is this undertaken? Environmental Science and Policy. 92, 66-75,

Buckerfield S., Waldron S., Quilliam R.S., Naylor L.A., Li S. and Oliver D.M. (2019) How can we improve understanding of faecal indicator dynamics in karst systems under changing climatic, population, and land use stressors? – Research opportunities in SW China. Science of the Total Environment. 646, 438-447,

Waldron S., Smith J., Taylor K., McGinnes C., Roberts N. and McCallum D. (2018) Repowering onshore wind farms: a technical and environmental exploration of foundation reuse. DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/SCZDE

Co-author on the Scottish Government Expert Scientific Panel Report on Unconventional Oil & Gas. Published Monday, July 28, 2014 ISBN: 9781784126834

Padfield R., Waldron S., Drew S., Papargyropoulou E., Kumaran S., Page S., Gilvear D., Armstrong A., Evers S., Williams P., Zakaria Z., Chin S., Hansen S., Campos-Arceiz A., Latif T., Sayok A. &  Tham M. (2014) Research agendas for the sustainable management of tropical peatland in Malaysia. Environmental Conservation,  Also at

Drew S, Grieve I. Gilvear D., Waldron. S. (2012) Carbon and Water Guidelines,

Drew S., Waldron S., Gilvear D., Grieve I., et al (2013) The price of knowledge in the knowledge economy: should development of peatland in the UK support a research levy?  Land Use Policy,  32: 50–60


Carbon cycling in drainage systems

Gu C.,  Waldron S., and Bass A.M. (2021) Carbon dioxide, methane, and dissolved carbon dynamics in an urbanized river system. Hydrological Processes. 35:e14360, (

Qin C., Li S-L., Waldron S., Yue F-J., Wang Z-J., Zhong J., Ding H., and Li C.Q. (2020) High-frequency monitoring reveals how hydrochemistry and dissolved carbon respond to rainstorms at a karstic critical zone, Southwestern China. Science of the Total Environment. 714, 136833, (

Lenhart-Barnett H. and Waldron S (2019) The influence of land cover, including Nootka lupin, or organic carbon exports in east Icelandic rivers.  Catena, 184, 104245 (

Waldron S. and Long H. (2017)  “Mapping DOC research relevant to sustainable catchment management”: A Carbon Landscape and Drainage Knowledge Exchange Network report for Scottish Water. Placed on-line 5/7/17

Vihermaa L.E., Waldron S., Domingues T., Grace J., Cosio E.G., Limonchi F., Hopkinson C., Ribeiro da Rocha H. and Gloor E. (2016)  Fluvial C export from a lowland Amazonian rainforest in relation to atmospheric fluxes Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 121, (doi:10.1002/2016JG003464). 

Long H., Vihermaa L.E., Waldron S., Hoey T.B., Quemin S. and Newton J. (2015) Hydraulics are a first order control on CO2 efflux from fluvial systems Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 120, (doi:10.1002/2015JG002955).

Elayouty A.,  Scott M., Miller C., Waldron S. and Franco-Villoria M. (2015) Challenges in modeling detailed and complex environmental data sets: a case study modeling the excess partial pressure of fluvial CO2 Environ. Ecol. Stat. DOI 10.1007/s10651-015-0329-4, 1-23

Buckles L.K, Weijers W.H., Tran X.-M., Waldron S., and  Sinninghe Damsté J.S (2014) Provenance of tetraether membrane lipids in a large temperate lake (Loch Lomond, UK): implications for glycerol dialkyl glycerol etraether (GDGT)-based palaeothermometry Biogeosciences, 11, 5539–5563, (doi:10.5194/bg-11-5539-2014)

Vihermaa L.E., Waldron S. , Garnett M.H., and Newton J. (2014) Old carbon contributes to aquatic emissions of carbon dioxide in the Amazon. Biogeosciences, 11, 3635-3645.  (doi: 10.5194/bgd-11-1773-2014)

Waldron S. , Scott E.M. , Vihermaa L.E. , and Newton, J. (2014) Quantifying precision and accuracy of measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotopic composition using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry , 28 (10). 1117-1126. (doi: 10.1002/rcm.6873)

Gulliver P., Waldron S., Scott E.M., Bryant C.L. The effect of storage on the radiocarbon, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures and concentrations of riverine DOM. Radiocarbon, 52 (3). pp. 1113-1122

Bass A., Waldron S., Preston T. & Adams C. (2010) Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in lacustrine δ13CDIC and δ18ODO signatures large,mid-latitude temperate lake. J. Limnol., 69(2): 341-349.

Bass A, Waldron S, Preston T & Adams C. (2010) Net pelagic heterotrophy in mesotrophic and oligotrophic basins of a large, temperate lake. Hydrobiologia, 652:363–375

Bass, A.M. (2008) Stable isotopic insight into pelagic carbon cycling in Loch Lomond: a large, temperate latitude lake. PhD thesis, Universityof Glasgow.

Waldron S., Scott E.M. and Soulsby C (2007) Stable isotope analysis reveals lower-order river dissolved inorganic carbon pools are highly dynamic. 41 (17): 6156-6162 Environmental Science and Technology, 10.1021/es0706089


Carbon flow in ecological and biological cycles

Evers, Stephanie L. (2008) The role of forest stream corridor characteristics in influencing stream and riparian ecology. PhD thesis, Universityof Glasgow.

Bearhop S., Fiedler W., Furness R.W., Votier S.C., Waldron S., Newton J., Bowen G.J., Berthold P. and Farnworth K. (2005) Assortative mating as a mechanism for rapid evolution of a migratory divide. 310 (5747): 502-504, Science

Lancaster J., Bradley D.C., Hogan A. and Waldron S. (2005) Intraguild omnivory in predatory stream insects. 74, 619-629, Journal of Animal Ecology.

Morrison D.J., Cooper K., Waldron S., Slater C., Weaver L.T. and Tom Preston T. (2004) The measurement of whole-body volatile fatty acid flux. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 18, 2593-2600.

Millett J., Jones R.I and Waldron S. (2003) The contribution of insect prey to the total nitrogen content of sundews (Drosera spp) determined in situ by stable isotope analysis. New Phytol 158 (3): 527-534 Jun 2003

Nagel O.W., Waldron S. and Jones H.G. (2001) An off-line implementation of the stable isotope technique for measurements of the alternative respiratory pathway activities. Plant Physiology, 127, 1279-1286.

McCarthy I.D. and Waldron S. (2000) Identifying migratory Salmo trutta using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 14, 15, 1325-1331.


Understanding the dynamics of terrestrial and gaseous C stores

Whitaker J., Richardson H.R., Ostle N.J., Armstrong A., and  Waldron S. (2021) Plant functional type indirectly affects peatland carbon fluxes and their sensitivity to environmental change European Journal of Soil Science, 10.1111/ejs.13048

Ratcliffe J.L., Payne R.J., Sloan J.T., Smith B., Waldron S., Mauquoy D., Newton A.,  Anderson A.R.,  Henderson A. and  Andersen R. (2018) Holocene carbon accumulation in the peatlands of northern Scotland Mires and Peat, Vol. 23(03), 1-30 10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.347

Armstrong A., Waldron S., Ostle N.J., Richardson H. and Whitaker J. (2015) Biotic and Abiotic Factors Interact to Regulate Northern Peatland Carbon Cycling Ecosystems, 1-15

Gillson L., Waldron S. and Willis K.J. (2004) Interpretation of soil δ13C as an indicator of vegetation change in African savannas. Journal of Vegetation Science. vol 15, 339-50.

Baird A.J., Beckwith C.W., Waldron S., and Waddington J. M.(2004) Ebullition of methane-containing gas bubbles from near-surface Sphagnum peat. Geophys. Res. Lett. Vol. 31, 10.1029/2004GL021157.

Baird A.J. and Waldron S. (2003) Shallow horizontal groundwater flow in peatlands is reduced by bacteriogenic gas production. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 20, 2043, 10.1029/2003GL018233..

Waldron S., Lansdown J.M., Scott  E.M., Fallick A.E. and Hall A.J. (1999) The global influence on the hydrogen isotope composition of water on that of bacteriogenic methane from shallow freshwater environments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 2237-2245.

Waldron S., Hall A.J. and Fallick A.E. (1999) Enigmatic stable isotope dynamics of deep peat methane. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 1, 93-100.

Waldron S., Fallick A.E. and Hall A.J. (1998) Comment on “Spatial distribution of microbial methane production pathways in temperate zone wetlands: Stable carbon and hydrogen evidence” by E.R.C. Hornibrook, F.J. Longstaffe and W.S. Fyfe. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62, 369-372.

Waldron, S (1994). Stable isotope studies of bacteriogenic methane emissions. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.


Would you like to do research within this group?

We are always interested in supporting interested researchers in securing funding to come and do research within our group. Please contact Susan Waldron to discuss further.

>> Read More